Lords of Annandale (c.1113)


1st Lord of Annandale, Robert de Brus, b?, a.c.1113, d.1142


Robert, Castellan of Bruges, the son of Lambert, Count of Louvain, emigrated to Normandy around 1051, settling in the town of Brix (a corruption of the original name) Cherbourg on the Cotentin Peninsula. His son Robert de Brus came to Britain with William the Conqueror in 1066 and received huge estates in the Ridings of Yorkshire. His grandson, also Robert de Brus, was at the English Court of King Henry I at the same time as Prince David of Scotland and they were both with Henry when he re-conquered Normandy in 1106. David returned to Scotland when he became heir to the throne on the death of his older brother, King Edgar. He brought a group of nobles with him, and established them in areas he obtained from his brother, the new King Alexander I, with de Brus receiving the feudal lordship of Annandale. David became King himself in 1124 and in 1135 invaded England in support of his niece Matilda against Stephen of Blois, the Conqueror’s son-in-law, who had usurped the crown after Henry’s death. David lost the Battle of the Standard in 1138 and retreated to Carlisle, which had fallen to him earlier in the campaign. Robert de Brus renounced his fealty to David because of the invasion, but his younger son, also Robert, fought for David and was captured by his own father in battle.


2nd Lord of Annandale, Robert de Brus, b?, a.1142, d.1194


Son of the 1st Lord and Agnes de Paganell. He was a supporter of King David I at the Battle of the Standard. The lordship was temporarily removed as part of the peace agreement made between Kings David and Stephen, but was restored in 1166 under King William the Lion. His older brother Adam took over the English lands of their father as Lord of Skelton. Robert later made Lochmaben the centre of his lordship but was buried at Gisborough Priory in Yorkshire, which had been founded by his father.


3rd Lord of Annandale, William de Brus, b.c.1142, a.1194, d.1203-1213


Son of the 2nd Lord and Euphemia de Aumale.


4th Lord of Annandale, Robert de Brus, b.b.1195, a.c.1213, d.1245


Son of the 3rd Lord and Christina, daughter of Patrick, 5th Earl of Dunbar.


5th Lord of Annandale, Robert de Brus, b.1210, a.1245, d.1294


Son of the 4th Lord and Lady Isabella, daughter of David, 8th Earl of Huntingdon, a grandson of David I. Through his mother he became owner of huge estates in England, and his grandmother and great-grandmother also being daughter of senior English nobles, he became part of the English establishment and served as a royal judge, becoming Chief Justice under King Henry III. He was captured, along with Prince Edward, in 1264, fighting for Henry at the Battle of Lewes against Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester (in an early attempt to create a parliament independent of the King), though a ransom was paid by his son for his release. After the defeat of de Montfort the following year, he was given even more lands and made Constable of Carlisle Castle. It is generally believed he went on crusade with the English princes circa 1270. He was also Regent of Scotland during the minority of his second-cousin, King Alexander III, and, as closest living male relative, was heir presumptive until Alexander had children in later life. All of Alexander’s children died young, and when Alexander himself died in 1286, the only surviving descendant was his three-year old grand-daughter Margaret, daughter of King Eiric of Norway. However, Margaret died on the Orkney Islands while being brought to Scotland for her coronation in 1290, leaving thirteen claimants for the throne and beginning the “Great Cause”. The only two realistic candidates were Robert de Brus and John Balliol, Lord of Galloway. Bishop Fraser of St Andrews, concerned about the mustering of troops throughout the country, wrote to invited Edward I, asking for his assistance in choosing the new King. Edward, seeing his chance of enforcing the treasured English claims of suzerainty over Scotland, quickly demanded that all candidates pay him homage, de Brus being amongst the first to do so, and then went through a rigorous legal process, finally choosing Balliol, who had the superior claim by primogeniture, although he was a third-cousin of kings rather than de Brus, who, as has been mentioned, was a second-cousin. Balliol was also the more popular choice amongst the Scottish people and was crowned King in Scone Abbey, giving homage to Edward a few weeks later at Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Edward had Scotland exactly where he wanted it, and now considered it a vassal state. Robert de Brus resigned his lordship to his son, along with any claims to the throne. He died at Lochmaben Castle and was buried in Gisborough like his ancestors.


6th Lord of Annandale, Robert de Brus, b.1243, a.1295, d.1304


Son of the 5th Lord and Lady Isabella de Clare, daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Gloucester. He swore fealty to England with his father and was part of the 9th Crusade. Legend has it that he returned to Scotland after the death of Adam of Kilconquhar, one of his companion-at-arms, in 1270, in order to bring the bad news to Adam’s widow, Margaret, Countess of Carrick. She became so smitten with him that she held him prisoner until he agreed to marry her. Some of this account may well be false, since the 9th Crusade did not reach Acre until 1271. Notwithstanding, he became jure uxoris Earl of Carrick. He attended the Coronation of Edward I in 1274 and fought for Edward during the conquest of Wales in 1282. Soon after his father had lost out to John Balliol in the contest for kingship, Robert received the lordship of Annandale, and also the claim to the crown, in order to keep future possibilities open for the family. In 1293 he travelled to Norway for the marriage of his daughter Isabel Bruce to King Eiric II. In 1295, as a response to Scottish negotiations with France, Edward started building up his forces just south of the border, and also demanded that the Scots relinquish the major strongholds of Berwick, Roxburgh and Jedburgh. To counter this, Balliol, a weak king under the control of powerful nobles, summoned all Scots to muster. Robert and his son sided with England and his lands were seized and handed over to the Comyn family. In 1296 Edward invaded Scotland, commencing the Wars of Independence. With de Brus in attendance at Edward’s side, the Scots were heavily defeated at the Battle of Dunbar and Balliol abdicated, eventually being passed over to papal custody. However, the next year the Scots rose in rebellion under Wallace and Moray, and won notable victories, including the Battle of Stirling Bridge, forcing Edward to invade yet again. After the Battle of Falkirk, Edward handed out Scottish lands to his followers but allowed the Bruces to hold on to Annandale. Throughout the period, Robert had to balance his support for Edward with the fact that his eldest son, also Robert, had switched sides and was now in support of independence. For his loyalty to Edward, he was given the title 1st Lord Bruce in the Peerage of England.


7th Lord of Annandale, Robert de Brus, b.1274, a.1304, d.1329


Son of the 6th Lord, and famous now as King Robert I. He was probably born at Turnberry Castle in Ayrshire, and had a very mixed childhood, his father being of Anglo-Norman descent while his mother was from an ancient Celtic family, her father being Neil, 2nd Earl of Carrick (though her mother was Margaret Stewart, a daughter of Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward). He became 4th Earl of Carrick in 1292 when his mother died, giving him independence from his father, and in 1295 married Isabella of Mar, daughter of Donald, 7th Earl of Mar. Their daughter Marjorie eventually married Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward, which connection led to the reign of the Stewart Kings decades later. Although he swore fealty to Edward with his father in 1296 at Berwick-upon-Tweed and at Carlisle, he joined the revolt, attacking the lands of those who supported England, though he subsequently had to make terms to ensure that the Bruce lands were not lost to the family. Shortly after the Battle of Stirling Bridge, he again defected to the Scots. However, after Edward’s victory at the Battle of Falkirk, he was allowed to retain his estates, no doubt due to the intercession of his father. After Wallace’s resignation, he became joint Guardian of the realm alongside John Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, whose father had been one of the lesser Competitors for the crown. Not able to see beyond his personal differences with Comyn, who was a nephew of John Balliol, Bruce was replaced as Guardian by Gilbert de Umfraville, heir to the earldom of Angus, with a third person added in the shape of William Lamberton, the new Bishop of St Andrews. In 1301, the guardians were replaced by a neutral candidate in John de Soulis, who tried to get Balliol to return. In response to this, Edward again invaded, but most of the Scots were by now operating guerilla tactics and no major victory was achieved, although Bruce did submit to Edward again around this time. His first wife having died, Bruce married Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster, in 1302. In 1303, Edward again invaded, penetrating much further north, and this time took full control of Scotland. Excepting Wallace, all the Scottish nobles submitted to Edward and John Comyn was re-instated as Guardian. By this time, however, Bruce seems to have made up his mind where his loyalties lay and made a secret pact with Lamberton. In 1305 Wallace was captured near Glasgow and hung, drawn and quartered in London. Until this time, Bruce had been seen as a slightly suspect individual, changing sides to suit himself and his family. However, this was to change irrevocably in 1306. Like his father and grandfather, he had a single-minded belief in his right to the throne of Scotland. However, his ambition was threatened by Comyn, who, as a nephew of Balliol, and a descendant of King Donald (half-brother of Malcolm Canmore), had his own pretensions. Shortly after Comyn had agreed Bruce to forfeit his rights to the throne in return for all the Bruce lands in Scotland, Edward finally made moves to apprehend Bruce while he was in England. Warned in advance, Bruce made his escape back to Scotland, believing Comyn had betrayed him. During a meeting held under truce in Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Bruce could not contain himself and attacked and injured Comyn, with his supporters finishing the job. Although the Scottish clergy were exhorted to support Bruce by Bishop Robert Wishart of Glasgow, he was ex-communicated, followed by the ex-communication of the whole country by the Pope, responding to Edward’s request. This desperate situation required utter commitment to avoid abject failure, and rather than become a fugitive, Bruce declared himself King of Scots, and was crowned at Scone by Lamberton. The following day the coronation was repeated by Isabella MacDuff, Countess of Buchan, who claimed the rights of the Earls of Fife to perform this duty. Later that year, he lost the Battle of Methven, and turned fugitive, his lands being turned over to Edward’s followers. Bruce’s wife, sisters and daughter Marjorie were captured at Tain on the Black Isle and held in harsh conditions for four years. King Edward died soon afterwards, leaving his much less vaunted son, Edward II, as king. Bruce split his forces and took this time to operate in guerilla fashion, mostly in the north of the country, recovering castles as he went, although he lost several of his brothers to the fighting. It was not until 1308, however, at the Battle of Inverurie, that he subdued the Comyn threat and slaughtered the English garrison in Aberdeen. With Scotland north of the Tay now in his control, he held his first Parliament in St Andrews in 1309, and the following year obtained the support of the clergy of Scotland, even though he was ex-communicated. The next few years saw continued advances southward, and in 1314, his lieutenant, James, Lord of Douglas, captured Roxburgh and Edinburgh castles, leaving only Stirling castle held by the English, and under siege from Bruce’s brother Edward. The governor of the castle, Philip de Mowbray, agreed to turn over the fortress unless relieved, prompting Edward II into action. Although not the biggest English army that had ever come north, it was a formidable array of experienced campaigners, such as the earls of Pembroke, Hereford and Gloucester, and included a host of Scottish enemies of Bruce such as Angus and also John Comyn, son of that other John whom Bruce had murdered. However, the Scots had gained huge experience in the preceding years at all types of military engagement, and had a number of excellent generals, including James Douglas, Thomas Randolph, Walter Steward, Edward Bruce and more. Suffice it to say that victory was complete. In an ambitious attempt to create a greater Scotland consisting of other parts of traditionally Celtic Britain, Bruce then invaded Ireland, where he could call on Ulstermen to support him, having married Elizabeth de Burgh, daughter of Richard de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster. However, he failed to make significant gains, and the whole attempt foundered after the death of Edward Bruce at the Battle of Faughart in 1318. In 1320, the Declaration of Arbroath, whose principal statement that “it is not glory, it is not riches, neither is it honours, but it is liberty alone that we fight and contend for, which no honest man will lose but with his life” is one of immense power, was produced in order to influence Papal opinion on the independence of Scotland from English overlordship, and Pope John XXII eventually lifted Bruce’s ex-communication. In 1328, Edward III of England signed a treaty recognising Scotland as a separate kingdom with Bruce its king. Robert Bruce died of an illness the year after this at Cardross and was buried in Dunfermline Abbey, though by his wishes, his heart was to be taken on crusade. Unfortunately, James Douglas was killed while carrying out these wishes in Moorish Spain, but the heart was brought back and buried at Melrose Abbey. Bruce was succeeded by his son David, and then by his grandson Robert, son of Bruce’s daughter Marjorie and Walter Stewart, hereditary High Steward of Scotland, beginning the reign of the Stewart kings.


8th Lord of Annandale, Thomas Randolph, b.b.1278, a.?, d.1332


Thomas Randolph was most likely the son of Robert Bruce’s half-sister Isabel and Sir Thomas Randolph of Nithsdale. He was an important supporter of the King during the wars of independence, his most famous achievement the taking of Edinburgh Castle in 1313. As well as being granted the lordship of Annandale, he was also created 1st Earl of Moray, the first in a new line of that title.


9th Lord of Annandale, Thomas Randolph, b.?, a.1332, d.1332


Son of the 8th Lord, and also 2nd Earl of Moray. He died fighting against Edward Balliol at the Battle of Dupplin Moor, having held his titles for all of 23 days.


10th Lord of Annandale, John Randolph, b.b.1317, a.1332, d.1346


Younger son of the 8th Lord. He also succeeded to the earldom of Moray on the death of his older brother. He was an important ally of David II during the second wars of independence, when disaffected supporters of John Balliol were still active. In 1332 a strong force of these, including Edward Balliol, son of the Competitor, and Henry Beaumont, 4th Earl of Buchan, and with the tacit support of Edward III of England, invaded, but were defeated by Randolph at the Battle of Annan. Balliol retreated to England and offered to cede all of south-east Scotland in return for aid. As on many times before, the English could not resist a chance to defeat the Scots, and Edward III brought another army north, to be met by Archibald Douglas, Guardian of the Realm. At the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, with John Randolph commanding the right, Robert Stewart, the future king, the centre, and Douglas the left, the Scots took to the battlefield at a disadvantage and were heavily defeated, losing many of the country’s leaders and leaving it wide open to invasion. Edward, however, failed to exploit his success to the full, and Scottish resistance persisted. Randolph fled to France after the battle but returned to Scotland as co-Regent alongside Robert Stewart, and continued active hostilities against the English. He was taken prisoner in 1335 and spent several years in English custody before being exchanged for the Earl of Salisbury in 1341. The following year he was with David II on an expedition into England, but was killed at the Battle of Neville’s Cross.


11th Lord of Annandale, Agnes Randolph, b.?, a.1346, d.1369


Daughter of the 8th Lord. She became renowned for her defence of Dunbar Castle during an English attack in 1338, she having married Patrick, the 9th Earl of Dunbar and March. The lordship became extinct at her death, but was occasionally used as an honorific for the younger brother of the heir to the throne.



Earls of Annandale (1625)


1st Earl of Annandale, John Murray, b.b.1602, a.1625, d.1640


Son of Sir Charles Murray, of the Murrays of Cockpool, and Margaret Somerville, daughter of Hugh Somerville, 4th Lord Somerville. He was a descendant of a sister of Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, mentioned above. He was brought to Court by William Douglas, 7th Earl of Morton and eventually succeeded his brothers as of Gentleman to the Bedchamber and Master of the Horse to King James VI, being handed various estates in Scotland, England and Ireland, and waas a major influence over the King in Scottish affairs. He was raised to the Peerage in 1622 as 1st Viscount of Annand and 1st Lord Murray of Lochmaben, and then in 1625 was created 1st Earl of Annandale and 1st Lord Murray of Tynningham. In 1636 he also succeeded his older brother as 2nd Baronet Murray of Cockpool.


2nd Earl of Annandale, James Murray, b.b.1630, a.1640, d.1658


Son of the 1st Earl and Elizabeth Schaw. He succeeded his distant kinsman, Mungo Murray, a younger son of John Murray, 1st Earl of Tullibardine, as 3rd Viscount Stormont and 3rd Lord Scone in 1641. He died without heirs and his Annandale titles became extinct, the viscountcy passing to David Murray, 2nd Lord Balvaird.



Earls of Annandale and Hartfell (1661)


1st Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, James Johnstone, b.1625, a.1661, d.1672


James Johnstone, 2nd Earl of Hartfell, resigned that title in order to take the combined earldom. The following year he obtained a distinct re-granting of the earldom and associated lordship with altered rules of succession.


2nd Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, William Johnstone, b.1664, a.1672, d.1721


Son of the 1st Earl and Henrietta Douglas, daughter of William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas (for whom see the earls of Angus). In 1701 he was created 1st Marquess of Annandale, 1st Earl of Hartfell, 1st Viscount of Annand and 1st Lord Johnston of Lochwood, Lochmaben, Moffatdale and Evandale.



Marquesses of Annandale (1701)


1st Marquess of Annandale, William Johnstone, b.1663-1664, a.1701, d.1721


He took an anti-Jacobite stance although he was opposed to the Union, and held many high offices. In 1693 he was made an Extraordinary Lord of Session and was a Privy Counsellor on and off from 1692 to 1706. He was Lord High Treasurer (a shared title at that time) from 1696 to 1705, Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland from 1714 to 1716 and Lord Privy Seal from 1715 to 1721 and Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1701 and 1711. He was invested as a Knight of the Thistle in 1704 and was a Representative Peer from 1715 to 1721 and was Lord-Lieutenant of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Peebles.


2nd Marquess of Annandale, James Johnstone, b.c.1687, a.1721, d.1730


Son of the 1st Marquess and Sophia Fairholm (b.1668, d.1716). He spent most of his adult life in Italy collecting works of art. He never married, but executed a deed granting his titles to his sister Henrietta’s family (she had married Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun) rather than his half-brothers. This attempt failed in practice with Henrietta obtaining his art collection and Scottish lands but failing to obtain his peerages.


3rd Marquess of Annandale, George Van den Bempde-Johnstone, b.1720, a.1730, d.1792


Half-brother of the 2nd Marquess, being the son of the 1st Marquess and his second wife Charlotte van Lore (b.?, d.1762). A nervous and timid man, he spent a year as a student of David Hume, the noted philosopher. He was declared mad in 1748. He died without issue, and the marquessate became dormant, as did the earldom. However, in 1985, Patrick Hope-Johnstone succeeded in obtained approval for his claim from the House of Lords, and the numbering was backdated through his bloodline.



Earls of Annandale and Hartfell (1662, continued)


5th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, James Hope-Johnstone, b.1741, a.1792, d.1816


Grandson of Lady Henrietta Johnstone (b.1682, d.1750) mentioned above, the sister of the 2nd Marquess of Annandale, and Charles Hope, 1st Earl of Hopetoun. He was himself 3rd Earl of Hopetoun, and was a trustee for the estates of his half-uncle, the 3rd Marquess of Annandale (and 4th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell). As he had daughters, the Hopetoun titles transferred to his half-brother, while the rules of succession of the older Annandale titles allowed for his eldest surviving daughter to succeed.


6th Earl (Countess) of Annandale and Hartfell, Anne Hope-Johnstone, b.1768, a.1816, d.1818


Daughter of the 5th Earl and Lady Elizabeth Carnegie, daughter of Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk. She was the only one of her siblings to survive her father.


7th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, John James Hope-Johnstone, b.1796, a.1818, d.1876


Son of the 6th Countess and Admiral Sir William Hope (b.1766, d.1831), a great-grandson of Charles Hope, the 1st Earl of Hopetoun. He served as a Conservative MP for Dumfriesshire from 1830 to 1847 and from 1857 to 1865. During his lifetime, he made several claims to the Annandale titles but was always refused.


8th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, John James Hope-Johnstone, b.1842, a.1876, d.1912


Grandson of the 7th Earl and Alicia Anne Gordon (b.?, d.1868), daughter of Colonel George Gordon of Esslemont and Hallhead, and son of William James Hope-Johnstone (b.1819, d.1850), the oldest son of the 7th Earl to have male heirs, and Octavia Sophia Bosville Macdonald (b.?, d.1897), daughter of Lieutenant-General Sir Godfrey Bosville Macdonald, 3rd Baron Macdonald of Slate. He served as a Conservative MP for Dumfriesshire from 1874 to 1880. He also petitioned for the Annandale titles and was refused. His claims were disallowed after he became mentally unstable.


9th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, Evelyn Wentworth Hope-Johnstone, b.1879, a.1912, d.1964


Nephew of the 8th Earl, being son of that man’s brother Captain Percy Alexander Hope-Johnstone (b.1845, d.1899) and Evelyn Ann Hope-Johnstone (b.?, d.1940), who was a grand-daughter of the 7th Earl via a younger son George Gordon Hope-Johnstone (b.1820, d.1866) and his wife Adelaide Mary Wentworth Sinclair (b.?, d.1873), daughter of Sir George Sinclair, 2nd Baronet Sinclair of Ulbster.


10th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, Percy Wentworth Hope-Johnstone, b.1909, a.1964, d.1983


Son of the 9th Earl and Eileen Briscoe (b.?, d.1909). Educated at Sherborne School in Dorset and RMC Sandhust, he served in the 16th / 5th Lancers (a combined regiment) and reached the rank of Major in the service of the 144th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery. He fought in the Second World War, where he was taken prisoner in the Far East. He also made claim to the Annandale titles, shifting attention from the those dated 1661 to those dated 1662, which had different rules of succession, but died before significant progress was made.


11th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, Patrick Andrew Wentworth Hope-Johnstone, b.1941, a.1983


Son of the 10th Earl and Margaret Jane Hunter-Arundell (b.1910, d.1998). He succeeded to the 1662 titles after his claim was accepted by the House of Lords in 1985, with backdating. He is also 11th Lord Johnston of Lochwood, Lochmaben, Moffatdale & Evandale, Chieftain of Clan Johnstone and Hereditary Steward of Annandale and Hereditary Keeper of Lochmaben Castle.



The courtesy title for the heir is Lord Johnstone.


Last updated: 13/01/2011


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