Baronets Stuart of Bute (1627)

 

1st Baronet Stuart, James Stuart, b.?, a.1627, d.1662

 

The Stuarts of Bute are descended from John Stewart (b.?, d.1445-1449), an illegitimate son of King Robert II. He was created Hereditary Sheriff of Arran, Bute and Cumbrae, a new county set up specifically for him by his father. His descendants also became Hereditary Keepers of Rothesay Castle. The family estates grew to include the estates of Kilchattan and Ardmaleish. Sir James Stuart, seven generations down, was created 1st Baronet Stuart of Bute in the Baronetage of Nova Scotia in 1627. He was a Royalist during the Civil Wars and held Rothesay Castle for the King. As King's Lieutenant in Western Scotland, he was instructed to take Dumbarton Castle, but bad weather scuppered one of his two ships and, his attack failing, he withdrew to Ireland. In 1646 he had to pay a fine in order to recover his lands. Rothesay Castle and the sheriffdom were finally removed from his hands during the Act of Grace in 1654. Surviving beyond the Restoration, he was buried in Westminster Abbey.

 

2nd Baronet Stuart, Dugald Stuart, b.?, a.1662, d.c.1671

 

Son of the 1st Baronet and Grizel Campbell, daughter of Sir Dugald Campbell, 1st Baronet Campbell of Auchinbreck. His younger brother Robert Stuart (b.c.1655, d.1710) became a Lord of Session in 1701, was a Commissioner for the Union and became 1st Baronet Stuart of Tillicoultry in 1707.

 

3rd Baronet Stuart, James Stuart, b.?, a.c.1671, d.1710

 

Son of the 2nd Baronet and Elizabeth Ruthven, daughter of Major General Sir John Ruthven of Dunglass. After the rebellion and subsequent forfeiture of Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, in 1681, Stuart was commissioned to maintain control over this large area and given command of a militia, and in 1685 he joined the Faculty of Advocates and was made Sheriff of Argyll. He also represented Bute as an MP. He supported William and Mary at the Revolution and was made a Privy Counsellor. In 1703 he was created 1st Earl of Bute, 1st Viscount Kingarth and 1st Lord Mountstuart, Cumra and Inchmarnock.

 

 

Earls of Bute (1703)

 

1st Earl of Bute, James Stuart, b.?, a.1703, d.1710

 

He was one of the Commissioners sent to England to negotiate for the Union of Parliaments in 1702, this coming to nothing at the time. He opposed the Union and refused to attend the final Scottish Parliament that ratified the treaty.

 

2nd Earl of Bute, James Stuart, b.b.1696, a.1710, d.1722-1723

 

Son of the 1st Earl and Agnes Mackenzie (b.1663, d.1696). He was a Representative Peer from 1715 to 1723 and served as Lord-Lieutenant of Bute between 1715 and 1723, and was also Lord of the Bedchamber from 1721 to 1723.

 

3rd Earl of Bute, John Stuart, b.1713, a.1723, d.1792

 

Son of the 2nd Earl and Lady Anne Campbell (b.b.1696, d.1736), daughter of Sir Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll. Inheriting at a young age, and raised by his maternal uncles, 2nd and 3rd Dukes of Argyll, he was educated at Eton and the University of Leiden, and served as a Representative Peer from 1737 to 1741 and from 1761 to 1780. He gained the Order of the Thistle in 1738, only to resign this later on being invested as a Knight of the Garter in 1762. During the Jacobite rebellion of 1745 he moved to London and served in the Royal Household, becoming a close ally of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and after his death in 1751 also of Frederick's younger brother, the future King George III, becoming a Lord of the Bedchamber in 1750. His influence as George's tutor paved the way for a growth in interest for the sciences. He was made a Privy Counsellor and Groom of the Stole after George's accession in 1760, and in 1762 he was appointed Prime Minister, though he held this post for less than one year, resigning due to growing conflict with the King, although he remained on good terms. A keen promoter of the arts and sciences, Stuart was a supporter of the architect Robert Adam and various other Scottish luminaries. His tenure as Prime Minister and general involvement at the highest levels even after his resignation was severely criticized and satirized, leading to a general dissatisfaction in England over the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment. He was Chancellor of Marischal College, Aberdeen, from 1761, and he became a Trustee of the British Museum in 1765. He was also elected President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland from 1780 to 1792 and was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

 

4th Earl of Bute, John Stuart, b.1744, a.1792, d.1814

 

Son of the 3rd Earl and Mary Wortley Montagu, Baroness Mount Stuart of Wortley (b.1718, d.1794). Long under his fatherís shadow, he served as a Tory MP for Bossiney in Cornwall from 1766 to 1776 and was later elevated to the peerage as 1st Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle, having extensive lands in South Wales. He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1779 and served as Ambassador to Spain for two spells, in 1783 and in 1795. He was Lord-Lieutenant of Bute, and of Glamorganshire, from 1794 to 1814. In 1796, he was created 1st Marquess of Bute, 1st Viscount Mountjoy and 1st Earl of Windsor in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

 

 

Marquesses of Bute (1796)

 

1st Marquess of Bute, John Stuart, b.1744, a.1796, d.1814

 

In 1799 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society and in 1800 he became a Trustee of the British Museum. His younger brother James Archibald Stuart (b.1747, d.1818) represented Bute as an MP and reached the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of his own regiment. He inherited both his mother's Wortley lands in Yorkshire and in Cornwall, but also his father's younger brother's former Mackenzie lands that had also come into the family by marriage. His son James Stuart-Wortley-Mackenzie (b.1776, d.1845) was later raised to the peerage as 1st Baron Wharnecliffe in 1826, and the 3rd Baron was created 1st Earl of Wharnecliffe in 1876, which title is extant.

 

2nd Marquess of Bute, John Crichton-Stuart, b.1793, a.1814, d.1848

 

Grandson of the 1st Marquess and Charlotte Jane Windsor (b.1746, d.1800), daughter of Herbert Hickman-Windsor, 2nd Viscount Windsor of Blackcastle, and son of John Stuart, Viscount Mount Stuart (b.1767, d.1794) and Lady Elizabeth Penelope MacDowall-Crichton (b.1772, d.1797), daughter of Patrick MacDowall-Crichton, 6th Earl of Dumfries. He was born John Stuart, but had his name legally changed in 1805, being the heir to his maternal grandfather's Dumfries titles as well as those of Bute. Although the 6th Earl of Dumfries died in 1803, John could not take over this title until the 1st Marquess died, since it would have been unacceptable for him to outrank his father. He was educated at Eton and Christ's College Cambridge. When his paternal grandfather died in 1814, he succeeded to all the titles held by both of his grandfathers. Preferring to live a private life managing his estates, he quickly saw the commercial opportunities of the Welsh coalfields and invested heavily in land and industrial sites there and taking over the ownership of Cardiff Castle. He was responsible for the construction of Cardiff Docks and is considered to be the creator of modern Cardiff as an industrial centre. Between 1815 and 1848 he was Lord-Lieutenant of both Bute and Glamorganshire. He was invested as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries in 1838 and he was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1843. He also obtained honorary doctorates from both Oxford and Cambridge, and was High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland from 1842 to 1846.

 

3rd Marquess of Bute, John Patrick Crichton-Stuart, b.1847, a.1848, d.1900

 

Son of the 2nd Marquess and his second wife Lady Sophia Frederica Christina Rawdon-Hastings (b.1809, d.1859), daughter of Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings. Succeeding his father while only six months old. he was educated at Harrow, Christ Church College Oxford and Edinburgh University, graduating in 1882. He was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1875, and received honorary doctorates from the University of Glasgow and the University of St Andrews, where he held the post of Rector from 1892 to 1898. He was a man of wide interests, in particular architecture, and he was responsible for the building of Cardiff Castle in the Gothic Revival form and of a stunning new Mount Stuart House on Rothesay. He was Mayor in Cardiff in 1891 and Lord-Lieutenant of Bute from 1892 to 1900.

 

4th Marquess of Bute, John Crichton-Stuart, b.1881, a.1900, d.1947

 

Son of the 3rd Marquess and Gwendolen Mary Anne Fitzalan-Howard (b.1854, d.1932), daughter of Edward George Firzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. Educated at Harrow School and Christ Church College Oxford, he was Lord-Lieutenant of Bute from 1905 until his death and he was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1922.

 

5th Marquess of Bute, John Crichton-Stuart, b.1907, a.1947, d.1956

 

Son of the 4th Marquess and Augusta Mary Monica Bellingham (b.1880, d.1947), daughter of Sir Alan Henry Bellingham, 4th Baronet Bellingham of Castle Bellingham, County Louth. He served in the Royal Artillery, Territorial Army Reserves and he was invested as a Companion of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem (C.St.J.). He was a keen ornithologist and purchased St Kilda in 1931, leaving it to the National Trust for Scotland in his will.

 

6th Marquess of Bute, John Crichton-Stuart, b.1933, a.1956, d.1993

 

Son of the 5th Marquess and Lady Eileen Beatrice Forbes (b.1912, d.1993), daughter of Bernard Arthur William Patrick Hastings Forbes, 8th Earl of Granard. Educated at Trinity College Cambidge, he served in the Scots Guards. He was Lord-Lieutenant of Bute between 1967 and 1975, and was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (K.B.E.) and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1972. He was Chairman of the National Trust for Scotland from 1969 to 1993, being responsible for obtaining the funding for the construction of a new National Museum of Scotland shortly before his death. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1992.

 

7th Marquess of Bute, John Colum Crichton-Stuart, b.1958, a.1993

 

Son of the 6th Marquess and Beatrice Nicola Grace Weld-Forester (b.1933), daughter of Lieutenant-Commander Wolstan Beaumont Charles Weld Forester. Also known as Johnny Dumfries, he spurned higher education to become a racing driver, beginning in Formula 3 in 1985 before taking part in Formula 1 racing in the 1986 season, competing in 16 Grand Prix for Lotus. In 1988 he won the Le Mans rally, driving for Jaguar. In 2007 he sold Dumfries House, near Cumnock, to a consortium led by Charles, Prince of Wales, for £45million. He is the current 7th Marquess of Bute, 7th Earl of Windsor, 7th Baron Cardiff of Cardiff Castle, 8th Baron Mount Stuart of Wortley and 7th Viscount Mountjoy of the Isle of Wight (in the Peerage of Great Britain), 10th Earl of Bute, 12th Earl of Dumfries, 19th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar, 12th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar and Cumnock, 12th Lord of Sanquhar, 10th Lord Mountstuart, Cumra and Inchmarnock, 10th Viscount Kingarth, 12th Viscount Air, 12th Viscount of Air (in the Peerage of Scotland) and 13th Baronet Stuart of Bute. He is also Hereditary Keeper of Rothesay Castle, Hereditary Sheriff of Bute and Chief of Clan Stuart of Bute.

 

 

The courtesy title of the heir was reviously Lord Mount Stuart but is now Earl of Dumfries.

 

(Last updated: 12/02/2013)

 

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