The name of Argyll is taken from the Gaelic Earra-Ghaidhal, which translates as Coast of the Gaels, meaning the mainland areas of the original Gaelic kingdom of Dal Riata, and consists of the mainland areas of Lorne and Kintyre, but also including the near isles of Mull, Islay and Jura. It was for long subject to the Lords of the Isles, but as their power waned other clans became more influential.
Lords Campbell (1445)
1st Lord Campbell, Duncan Campbell, b.?, a.1445, d.1453
The Campbells had been the dominant clan in Argyll for many years, one of the earliest figures being Gillespic Campbell who married the heiress of the lands of Lochow. By the time of his great-grandson Colin Campbell of Lochow (d.c.1296), the Campbells were heavily involved in national politics, and his son Neil Campbell of Lochow was an early and ardent supporter of Robert Bruce. His son John Campbell (b.c.1313, d.1333), whose mother was Mary Bruce, sister of King Robert I, was created 1st Earl of Atholl in a new line, but this reverted to the crown on his death at the Battle of Halidon Hill. The chieftaincy of the clan continued with his older half-brother Sir Colin Campbell (b.?, d.1343), who was made Lord of Lochow in 1315. He supported Edward Bruce in Ireland and later aided in the removal of the English from Scottish soil that allowed David II to return to take his throne. The family grew in influence and property from that time, though taking no significant part in national politics until the time of Sir Colin’s great-grandson, Duncan Campbell. The head of Clan Campbell from an early age, Duncan Campbell’s main aim was to increase the power of his family as much as possible. To this end, he courted the aristocracy, aided by the fact that his father’s first wife had been sister-in-law of King Robert III, and married Lady Marjorie Stewart (b.b.1380, d.1432), daughter of Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, younger brother of Robert III, uncle to the young King James I and one of the chief political movers of the time. When James was ransomed from the English, Duncan was initially viewed with suspicion due to his close association with Albany, and he was sent to England as an hostage for the payment of the ransom. On the death of James, however, Duncan pledged his loyalty to the heir, while taking the opportunity by expanding his power in Argyll. When his first wife died, he married Margaret Stewart (b.b.1416, d.1442), a grand-daughter of Robert III and son of Robert’s illegitimate son John Stewart (b.?, d.c.1412).
2nd Lord Campbell, Colin Campbell, b.1433, a.1453, d.1493
Grandson of the 1st Lord and Lady Marjorie Stewart, and son of Archibald Campbell, Master of Campbell (b.?, d.?) and Elizabeth Somerville, daughter of John Somerville, 2nd Lord Somerville. As a supporter of James II against the Black Douglas, he was created 1st Earl of Argyll in 1457.
Earls of Argyll (1457)
1st Earl of Argyll, Colin Campbell, b.1433, a.1457, d.1493
In 1470 he was created 1st Lord Lorne after his wife’s uncle, Walter Stewart, 3rd Lord Lorn, resigned that title in order to take the alternative title of 1st Lord Innermeath (for whom see the Stewart earls of Atholl), exchanging Campbell’s lowland estates for his own Lorne and giving Campbell undisputed feudal lordship of all Argyll. He was Lord Chancellor of Scotland from 1483 until 1488, when he was temporarily deprived of the post, suspected of having collaborated in the murder of King James III during the Battle of Sauchieburn, although he was in England at the time. However, he was quickly re-instated as Chancellor by James IV. During his time, and with his help, the King and Parliament were able to enforce forfeiture on much of the territory of the Lords of the Isles and parcelling it out to loyal clans, the Campbells being foremost amongst these.
2nd Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.b.1478, a.1493, d.1513
Son of the 1st Earl and Isabel Stewart (b.?, d.1510), daughter of John Stewart, 2nd Lord Lorn. A great supporter of King James IV, he served as Lord Chancellor, Lord Chamberlain and Master of the Household and was also Lord-Lieutenant of the Borders and Warden of the Marches. He continued his father’s policy of obtaining additional lands, these often having been forfeited by others. He died at Flodden in command of the right wing.
3rd Earl of Argyll, Colin Campbell, b.1486, a.1513, d.1529
Son of the 2nd Earl and Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of John Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox. A prominent statesman of the time, he held several high offices, including High Justiciar, Master of the King’s Household (which became hereditary to the family), Lord-Lieutenant of the Borders, and Warden of the Marches. He joined the Council of Regency during the minority of James V and as Lieutenant of the Isles brought his powers to bear on rebellious elements such as the Macdonalds of Lochalsh.
4th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1507, a.1529, d.1558
Son of the 3rd Earl and Jean Gordon, daughter of Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly. He was made Master of the Household and Justiciar of Scotland on succeeding to the earldom, obtaining yet more estates in the process. After the death of James, he allied himself with Cardinal Beaton against the English faction and opposed the marriage of Queen Mary to Prince Edward of England. He led a battalion at the Battle of Pinkie in 1547 and the following year was active trying to drive the English invaders from the country. However, he appears soon after this to have gone over to the English side, taking an aggressive stance against Mary of Guise, the Queen Dowager, and was briefly imprisoned for treason. He was one of the first senior nobles to go over to Protestantism, signing the Covenant in 1557, and promoting the Reformation, his new-found zeal for the new religion perhaps explaining his opposition to the Catholic-dominated French Party.
5th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Cambpell, b.c.1537, a.1558, d.1575
Son of the 4th Earl and Lady Helen Hamilton, daughter of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran. He was a leading figure of the time, and a staunch Protestant. He was a member of the Lords of the Congregation, who were opposed to Queen Mary’s marriage to the Dauphin of France, a bond arranged by Mary of Guise, the Queen’s mother, acting as Regent. Argyll and his close ally and brother-in-law James Stewart, an illegitimate son of James V and later to be Earl of Moray, negotiated with the English against Mary of Guise, and secured the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560, an attempt by Parliament to end the Auld Alliance with France, which at that time was heavily involved in Scottish politics, and succeeding in securing the withdrawal of French troops from the country. When Queen Mary returned to Scotland after the death of the Dauphin, he was initially held in high esteem and made a Privy Counsellor, but when Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Argyll and other Protestant leaders rose in revolt, only for the English to ignore their requests for aid. Argyll was able to remain in Scotland due to his control over large areas of the Highlands while his co-conspirators fled to England. He was linked to the assassinations of both David Rizzio and Darnley, and joined others in an uprising after Mary married James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, a highly colourful character, who was seen as an untrustworthy rogue. The two sides clashed at Carberry Hill in 1567, with Bothwell on the losing side and fleeing the country. Argyll then supported the deposition of Mary and carried the sword of state at the Coronation of her son, and backed his ally Moray into obtaining the position of Regent. For some reason, he then sided with the Queen against those who had deposed her and joined her at Hamilton when she escaped from Lochleven Castle. He then fought for her at the Battle of Langside, having been made her Lieutenant-General on the morning of the battle, and was captured, only to be allowed to escape back to the safety of his own lands. After Mary’s flight to England, he joined with other of her supporters in planning her restoration, but this failed to get off the ground and he made his peace with his former ally Moray. The assassination of Moray in 1570 emboldened the Queen’s Party and Argyll was appointed as a Queen’s Lieutenant, but again nothing came of their plans and he was required to make peace with the new Regent, Mathew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox. This new Regent suffered the same fate as the previous one, attacked and killed by supporters of the Queen. This time, however, Argyll presented himself as a candidate, and though not chosen, the Regency going to James Stewart, 1st Earl of Mar, he was made a Privy Counsellor. When James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton became Regent in turn, Argyll was appointed Lord Chancellor, a position he retained until his death.
6th Earl of Argyll, Colin Campbell, b.c.1541, a.1573, d.1584
Younger half-brother of the 5th Earl, being the son of the 4th Earl and his second wife Lady Margaret Graham, daughter of William Graham, 3rd Earl of Menteith. Soon after becoming earl he fell out with the Regent, James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, and with the aid of John Stewart, 4th Earl of Atholl, with whom he had previously been at odds, threatened to rescue the King from Morton’s grip by armed force. Negotiations led to his being installed as Lord Chancellor, after which he plotted with Esme Stewart, future Duke of Lennox, and James Stewart, future Earl of Arran to remove Morton from power. Discovering this French-inclined faction’s danger to the Reformation, he then switched sides, supporting the Protestant Lords during the Raid of Ruthven, before apparently assisting in the King’s rescue from those same nobles. His health now fading, he died soon after.
7th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1575, a.1584, d.1638
Son of the 6th Earl and his second wife Lady Agnes Keith, daughter of William Keith, 3rd Earl Marischal. He was initially the target of failed assassination attempts by the Catholic earls of Huntly and Erroll and an alliance of lesser Campbell chieftains, and in 1594 was given royal commission to suppress the Catholic rebellion, but was soundly defeated at the Battle of Glenlivet. This led to all-out war in the north that threatened the stability of the nation and eventually the King had to intervene, imprisoning Argyll in Edinburgh Castle and expelling the rebel earls, who fled to Denmark. In 1603, prior to taking the throne of England, James tried to reconcile the northern lords, with the heir of Huntly marrying a daughter of Argyll, and they were jointly instructed to quell the Macgregor clan. In 1617, Argyll obtained the whole of the Lordship of Kintyre after putting down the Macdonald rebellion of 1615. Shortly after this he converted to Roman Catholicism following his second marriage to Anne Cornwallis (b.?, d.1634-1635), daughter of Sir William Cornwallis of Brome, and left for Spain under false pretexts, where he fought for King Philip III against the Dutch. Returning to Scotland, he was sentenced as a traitor by an offended King, and although this was reversed not long afterwards, he did not return to Great Britain until shortly before his death. The lordship of Kintyre was converted into a title in the Peerage of Scotland in 1626 for James Campbell (b.1611, d.1646), his eldest son from his second marriage. When James died this title transferred back to the principal heir, the 8th earl.
8th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1597, a.1638, d.1661
Son of the 7th Earl and Lady Agnes Douglas, daughter of William Douglas, 6th Earl of Morton. He took control of the Argyll estates after his father converted to Catholicism, and was considered the most powerful man in the kingdom, able to call upon 20,000 clansmen. He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1628 and an Extraordinary Lord of Session in 1634. He advised the King not to enforce an Episcopacy on the Scottish people, but on being ignored in this, did not directly oppose the Charles I until his lands were invaded by Irish supporters of the King, after which he sided with the Reformers, signing the Covenant and attending the Assembly that abolished the Episcopacy. In defiance of the King’s dispersion of the Scottish Parliament in 1640, he urged that it continue sitting and be populated by elected individuals rather than nominees of the King, in opposition to James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. When Charles dissolved the Scottish Parliament, Argyll led the moves for the creation of a Committee of Estates to continue running the country. During this time, Argyll conducted violent purges of Royalists in Atholl and Angus, capturing and imprisoning John Murray, 1st Earl of Atholl. His actions forced Montrose to plot against him, but that individual’s plans came to naught, and when the King made a visit to Scotland, he discovered that he had lost all political authority. In an effort to keep the Scottish Parliamentarians on his side, Charles raised Argyll to the rank of Marquess. A failed attempt at kidnapping Argyll and James Hamilton, 3rd Marquess of Hamilton, with Montrose again involved, left Charles with no option but to accede to the Covenanters demands. He then officially transferred all judicial and political appointments to Parliament and returned home. In 1644 the Royalists took arms, and there followed a series of battles across the country, Argyll often on the receiving end. Even resigning his commission and retiring to Inveraray Castle Argyll could not escape the wrath of Montrose, who followed him into his own domains and inflicted heavy defeat on him at the Battle of Inverlochy. It was not until the final defeat of Montrose at Philiphaugh that Argyll could breath easily. As the foremost statesman, he was then briefly in total control of the kingdom, but could not stop the breakdown of relations with England during that country’s own civil war. He opposed the Engagement between the King and the Presbyterian Royalists that resulted in a Scots Army marching into England and being heavily defeated at Preston in 1648 by Oliver Cromwell. However, he managed to re-establish a new government and welcomed Cromwell in Edinburgh. This new alliance lasted until the execution of Charles I in 1649, which horrified most Scots, and the establishment of the Commonwealth of England. The Covenanters then invited Charles II to Scotland and declared him King. The English Parliament could not condone this and sent an invading army, first under Sir Thomas Fairfax, but then Cromwell, which won a major victory at the Battle of Dunbar, resulting in the destruction of the Scottish Army. Cromwell then marched into Edinburgh, though the castle held out for some months. Cromwell force-marched 5,000 Scottish soldiers back to Durham Cathedral in England. Many died on the way, and many more while imprisoned, the rest eventually transported to the colonies. Meanwhile, Argyll was kept on the King’s side by further promises, and actually performed the Coronation at Scone in 1651, though his position had been weakened. The Scots then, against Argyll’s advice, invaded England while Cromwell was still in Scotland, forcing him to turn south and inflict the final serious defeat at the Battle of Worcester. During the remainder of the duration of the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England, although this was largely peaceful. At the Restoration, Argyll presented himself to the King, but was arrested for high treason. Evidence showed that while having nothing to do with the death of Charles I, he had been in extensive collaboration with Cromwell’s Government. He was sent back to Scotland and beheaded in Edinburgh, all honours forfeit.
9th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1628, a.1663, d.1685
Son of the 8th Earl and Lady Margaret Douglas (b.1610, d.1677-1678), daughter of William Douglas, 7th Earl of Morton. Although not having his father’s radical Presbyterian zeal, the then Lord Lorne was an active opponent of Cromwell and fought for Charles II under John Middleton, 1st Earl of Middleton. After Worcester he continued to fight until he had no choice but to surrender to General Monke, whereon he was treated badly and imprisoned until the Restoration. Following the Restoration, Middleton became Lord High Commissioner to the Scottish Parliament, and though powerful, had no territories under his command. Lorne could not inherit his father’s titles as they were forfeit, and so Middleton became intent on scheming against him in order to gain the lucrative inheritance. Knowing full well what was taking place, but unable to work against it, Lorne was tricked into revealing his dissatisfaction in a letter, which was then used to bring about a charge before Parliament, resulting in a sentence of death. The King spared Lorne’s life but had him imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, where he met John Maitland, 2nd Earl of Lauderdale, the Secretary of State for Scotland. Lauderdale was seen as rival by Middleton, who again set his schemes in motion. However, the King favoured Lauderdale and Middleton was eventually deprived of office. At his downfall, Lorne was released from prison, and regained his earldom. However, estates granted to his father’s marquessate were returned to their previous owners, and Argyll was left burdened by debts accrued during the Scottish Civil War. In order to satisfy creditors, he turned to his own debtors, chief among these being the Macleans of Duart, and the ensuing troubles quickly destabilised the Highlands. He also still had many enemies in political circles, and when his ally Lauderdale was replaced by James, Duke of York, the King’s brother, things went from bad to worse. James had become a Catholic and was sent to Scotland in order to soften a crisis that had arisen at the English court about the succession, since Charles himself was not likely to produce an heir. James had an idea to bind public figures to the royal succession by some sort of test, and this was eventually turned into a Confession of Faith document, a cobbled-together bundle of inconsistencies that tried to cover loyalty to the monarch with upholding Presbyteriansim. As had been the case previously, Argyll walked right in where angels fear to tread, even though most people simply refused to take the oath mentioned in the test. The Commissioner of the test was persuaded that Argyll’s answers were treasonable, and he was arrested, attainted and condemned for the second time in his life. However, he managed to escape, and fled to London, and then on to Holland. Growing dissatisfaction with the Stuarts meant that there was no shortage of disaffected politicians and nobles for Argyll to associate. This odd collection of plotters became much more animated after the death of Charles in 1685, which left James on the throne. Argyll became more important in his ability to tap into clan loyalty in a way that the English never could. With financial contributions from a variety of sources, Argyll was encouraged to lead an invasion of Scotland, while James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, an illegitimate son of Charles II, led a similar expedition to England. However, a lack of military experience and an inferior navy led to indecision, and he was eventually caught at Inchinnan, near Glasgow, and immediately sent to Edinburgh for execution. The invasion of England similarly failed, hoped-for support failing to show, with Monmouth finally defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor.
10th Earl of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1658, a.1689, d.1703
Son of the 9th Earl and Lady Mary Stuart, daughter of James Stuart, 4th Earl of Moray. After his father had failed in his invasion of Scotland and been made forfeit, the new Chief of Clan Campbell first offered his services to King James VII & II in the hope of regaining his father’s estates. When it became apparent that this was not going to happen, he quickly deserted James for the Prince of Orange. At the Glorious Revolution he was immediately re-instated in all of his rights and privileges by the Scottish Convention and the following year he succeeded to his father’s titles by reversal of attainder and made a Privy Counsellor. As William’s chief Scottish advisor, he was created 1st Duke of Argyll in 1701, with the subsidiary titles of 1st Marquess of Kintyre & Lorne, 1st Earl of Campbell & Cowal, 1st Viscount of Lochow & Glenisla and 1st Lord of Inverary, Mull, Morvern and Tirie (original spelling).
Dukes of Argyll (1701)
1st Duke of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1658, a.1701, d.1703
Although attaining the rank of duke, he in generally considered to be the least able and impressive member of the dynasty.
2nd Duke of Argyll, John Campbell, b.1680, a.1703, d.1743
Elder son of the 1st Duke and Elizabeth Tollemache (b.1659, d.1735), daughter of Sir Lionel Tollemache, 3rd Baronet Talmash of Helmingham. An altogether different man to his father, he was sent as Lord High Commissioner to the Scottish Parliament to negotiate the Act of Union in 1705, and for this he was created 1st Earl of Greenwich and 1st Baron Chaham in the Peerage of England. He then joined the British Army, and under the overall command of the Duke of Malborough he fought at the Battles of Ramilies, Oudenarde and Malplaquet in the Wars of the Spanish Succession and became one of the most senior military figures of his time. In 1709 he was made a Privy Counsellor, and had reached the rank of Lieutenant-General and received the Order of the Thistle, the last of which he exchanged for the Order of the Garter the following year. He was Ambassador to Spain in 1710-1711 and on the dismissal of Marlborough, Argyll became Commander-in-Chief in Spain and held Governorships of Edinburgh Castle and of Minorca In 1713 he resigned his command and returned to Britain, disgusted with the Tory administration, and joined the Whigs in opposition. His attendance at the Privy Council in 1714 during Queen Anne’s illness is viewed as being contributing to securing the Hanoverian succession rather than the return of the Jacobites. He led the Government army at the Battle of Sheriffmuir against the Jacobites during the 1715 Uprising and was rewarded by being made 1st Duke of Greenwich in the Peerage of Great Britain, though this became extinct at his death. Although he was not popular with George II or his Government, to the extent that he was shortly afterwards ostracised for several years, his capabilities could not be denied and he held a number of senior Government posts thereafter, including Lord Steward of the Household from 1718 to 1725, Master of the Ordnance from 1725 to 1730 as well as being Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire and Dunbartonshire. He was Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards on several occasions over his life, and achieved the rank of Field Marshall in 1735/1736. His high-handed and domineering nature made him many enemies in high places, but he never let anything stand in his way. On the downfall of the Walpole Government in 1742, he was made Commander-in-Chief, but had the audacity to resign after only a couple of weeks when he disagreed with the appointment of John Hay, 4th Marquess of Tweeddale, as Secretary of State for Scotland. He left several daughters but no male heir.
3rd Duke of Argyll, Archibald Campbell, b.1682, a.1743, d.1761
Younger son of the 1st Duke. As with his older brother, he supported the Act of Union, and was created 1st Earl of Ilay, 1st Viscount of Ilay and 1st Lord Oronsay, Dunoon and Arase in 1706, though these titles became extinct on his death. He was a Representative Peer from 1707 to 1713, was an Extraordinary Lord of Session from 1708 to 1761 and Lord Justice General for Scotland from 1710 to 1761. He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1711 and was returned as a Representative Peer from 1715 to 1761. He was also Lord-Lieutenant of Midlothian from 1715 to 1761 and of Haddington from 1737 to 1761, and was Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland from 1721 to 1733 and of the Great Seal of Scotland from 1733 to 1761. Although not as famous a soldier as his brother, he became Colonel of the newly-formed 36th Foot Regiment in 1701 and also fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. He was a founding member of the Royal Bank of Scotland in 1727, was its first Governor, and currently appears on all Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes. He succeeded to all of his brother’s titles, and at this time, under his shrewd management, the power of the Argyll Campbell’s reached it zenith. He was a favourite of Prime Minister Walpole and was often referred to as the King of Scotland in respect of his total control of the country. He rebuilt Inveraray Castle using money received from surrendering his hereditary justiciarships and sheriffships and the sale of the Duddingston estate in Edinburgh, though it was incomplete when he died. He was a keen gardener and imported large numbers of exotic plants and trees for his estate at Whitton Park in Middlesex. When he died, many of these specimens were moved by his nephew, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, to the Princess of Wales’ new garden at Kew, some of which are still in existence. He died without issue and was succeeded by his cousin.
4th Duke of Argyll, John Campbell, b.1693, a.1761, d.1770
Grandson of the 9th Earl, and son of John Campbell (b.1659-1668, d.1729) and Elizabeth Elphinstone (b.1673, d.1758), daughter of John Elphinstone, 8th Lord Elphinstone. Like his father before him, he served as a Whig MP over the course of many Parliaments, latterly for Dunbartonshire. He was also a noted soldier, and was Colonel of the 39th Foot Regiment from 1737 to 1738 and then of the 21st Foot Regiment until 1752. He reached the rank of Brigadier-General in 1743, Major-General in 1744 and Lieutenant-General in 1747. After succeeding to the dukedom, he was invested as a Privy Counsellor and served as a Representative Peer. He was made a Knight of the Thistle in 1765, and promoted to the rank of General in the British Army.
5th Duke of Argyll, John Campbell, b.1723, a.1770, d.1806
Son of the 4th Duke and Mary Bellenden (b.1685, d.1736), daughter of John Bellenden, 2nd Lord Bellenden of Broughton (for whom see the dukes of Roxburghe). As with his father, he combined a career in the army with being a Whig MP for the Glasgow Burghs from 1744 to 1761. He joined the 21st Royal Scots Fusiliers in 1744 and fought at Culloden. In 1749 he became Commanding Officer of the 42nd Foot Regiment and he was Colonel of the 56th Foot Regiment from 1755 to 1757 and of thr 14th Dragoons from 1757 to 1765. From 1755 to 1759 he served as Aide-de-Camp to the King. He reached the rank of Major-General in 1759 and of Lieutenant-General in 1765 and was Colonel of the 1st Foot (Royal) Regiment from 1765 to 1782. He was Commander-in-Chief in Scotland from 1767 to 1782, even before he inherited his titles, and was created 1st Baron Sundridge of Coomb Bank, Kent, in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1766. He reached the rank of General in 1778 and of Field Marshal in 1796. He was Colonel of the 13th Guard Regiment (afterwards called the Scots Guard) and was Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1794 to 1800.
6th Duke of Argyll, George William Campbell, b.1768, a.1806, d.1839
Son of the 5th Duke and the Dowager Duchess Elizabeth Gunning, Baroness Hamilton of Hameldon (b.?, d.1790), who had previously been married to James Hamilton, 6th Duke of Hamilton. From his mother he inherited the title of 3rd Baron Hamilton of Hameldon. He was a Whig MP for St Germans from 1790 to 1796 and was Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1800 to 1839. He was Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland from 1827 to 1828 and from 1830 to 1839, was invested as a Knight Grand Cross of the Hanoverian Order (GCH) in 1833 and made a Privy Counsellor in the same year. He was Lord Steward of the Household to Queen Victoria from 1835 to 1839. He married Lady Caroline Elizabeth Villiers (b.1774, d.1835), daughter of George Bussy Villiers, 4th Earl of the Island of Jersey, but had no legitimate issue.
7th Duke of Argyll, John Douglas Edward Henry Campbell, b.1777, a.1839, d.1847
Younger brother of the 6th Duke. He was a Whig MP for Argyllshire from 1799 to 1822 and Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland from 1841 to 1846. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1819. He married three times, but only his second wife, Joan Glassel, had any children.
8th Duke of Argyll, George Douglas Campbell, b.1823, a.1847, d.1900
Son of the 7th Duke and Joan Glassel (b.?, d.1828). Like his predecessors, he held numerous senior posts. He was Lord Privy Seal from 1852 to 1855 in the cabinet of George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen and was then Postmaster-General from 1855 to 1858 and Lord Privy Seal from 1859 to 1866 under first Lord Palmerston and then Lord Russell. He then served as Secretary of State for India under Gladstone from 1868 to 1874. When Gladstone was re-elected in 1880, Argyll was re-instated as Lord Privy Seal, but resigned the following year in protest against Gladstone’s Land Bill. As a point of interest, he was simultaneously a Knight of the Thistle (from 1856) and a Knight of the Garter (from 1883), a rare occurrence as when awarded the higher accolade, the Garter, it was customary to surrender the membership of the lesser. He was also made 1st Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1892, from then on holding two separate dukedoms of the same name. He also served as Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from 1851 and Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1862, holding both of these honorary positions until his death.
9th Duke of Argyll, John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, b.1845, a.1900, d.1914
Son of the 8th Duke and Lady Elizabeth Georgiana Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, daughter of George Granville Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, 2nd Duke of Sutherland. Educated at Eton, St Andrews and Trinity College Cambridge, he spent some years travelling before becoming a Liberal MP for Argyllshire in 1868. He married Princess Louise, Queen Victoria’s fourth daughter, in 1871, the first time a Princess had married a commoner (a non-royal) since 1515. They had a common interest in the arts, though they lived apart and had no children, it being rumoured that we has bi-sexual or even homo-sexual. He was appointed as Governor-General of Canada in 1878 and he and his wife made many lasting contributions to that country, establishing the Royal Society of Canada, the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts and the National Gallery of Canada. He travelled widely in the country, writing of its beauty in both poetry and prose, while his wife painted watercolours. Their residence at Rideau Hall was the centre of many social and state occasions but said to have had a very relaxed atmosphere. He returned to Britain in 1883, his wife having preceded him, and was Governor and Constable of Windsor Castle from 1892 to 1914 and Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1900 until his death. He served as an MP for Manchester South from 1895 until he succeeded to the dukedom and was invested as a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order in 1901.
10th Duke of Argyll, Niall Diarmid Campbell, b.1872, a.1914, d.1949
Nephew of the 9th Duke, being son of that man’s younger brother Captain Lord Archibald Campbell (b.1846, d.1913) and Janey Sevilla Callander (b.?, d.1923), daughter of James Henry Callander of Craigforth. Educated at Charterhouse School and Christ Church College Oxford, he was made Honorary Colonel of the 8th Battalion, Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders and of the 14th (Canadian) Argyll Light Infantry. He was Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1923 until his death. An eccentric and reclusive person, he died unmarried.
11th Duke of Argyll, Ian Douglas Campbell, b.1903, a.1949, d.1973
Great-grandson of the 8th Duke, grandson of that duke’s third son Lord Walter Campbell (b.1848, d.1889) and Olivia Rowlandson Milns (b.?, d.1892), and son of Douglas Walter Campbell (b.1877, d.1926) and Aimee Marie Suzanne Lawrence (b.?, d.1920). Born in Paris but raised in America before enrolling at Christ Church College Oxford it being obvious that he would be the next duke), he fought in the Second World War and was held a prisoner of war between 1940 and 1945. He later reached the rank of Captain in the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders. He was also invested as a Knight of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. He married four times, mostly famously to Margaret Whigham, who was mother of the Duchess of Rutland from a previous marriage. She was a well-known society figure and nymphomaniac (this triggered by a bad fall down an elevator shaft), and from whom he obtained a scandalous divorce.
12th Duke of Argyll, Ian Campbell, b.1937, a.1973, d.2001
Son of the 11th Duke and his second wife Louise Hollingsworth Morris Clews (b.?, d.1970). Educated in Switzerland, Glenalmond in Scotland and McGill University in Canada, he reached the rank of Captain in the Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders, and held a number of senior positions in public life, such as Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland, as well as being a director in several private companies. He was invested as a Knight of the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem in 1975 and Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire from 1994 to 2001.
13th Duke of Argyll, Torquhil Ian Campbell, b.1968, a.2001
Son of the 12th Duke and Iona Mary Colquhoun (b.1945), daughter of Ivar Iain Colquhoun, 8th Baronet Colquhoun of Luss. Educated at Glenalmond and then McGill like his father, and spends a great deal of his time promoting Scottish whiskies. He was also the captain of the Scottish elephant polo team that won the 2004 and 2005 World championships. As well as being 13th Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of Scotland, he is also the current holder of the titles 6th Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, 13th Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne, 22nd Earl of Argyll, 13th Earl of Campbell and Cowal, 13th Viscount of Lochow and Glenyla, 23th Lord Campbell, 22nd Lord Lorne, 16th Lord Kintyre, 13th Lord Inverary, Mull, Morvern and Tirie, 10th Baron Hamilton of Hameldon, 9th Baron Sundridge and 15th Baronet Campbell. He is also Chief of Clan Campbell and holds a number of hereditary posts, including Master of the Royal Household, Keeper of the Great Seal and Admiral of the West Coasts and the Isles. He resides at the principal family home of Inveraray Castle.
The courtesy title for the heir is Marquess of Lorne.
(Last updated: 07/03/2011)